The failure of an underground rock structure is a synthetic process of energy dissipation and energy release. The releasable strain energy stored in rock structure and dissipated energy mainly depend on the unloading elastic modulus and Poisson’s ration of rocks in-situ and are related to the loading rate and load level. In this paper, static cyclic loading-unloading uniaxial compression tests under different loading rates are carried out. The variation laws of unloading elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio, as well as the releasable strain energy and dissipated energy are obtained. The SHPB impact tests are also conducted and the total absorbed energy is measured. The testing analysis results can be used for the calculation of releasable strain energy, dissipated energy in a rock structure and for the prediction of rock structure failure.